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Ottomans adhered to the teachings of Islam in regard to non-Muslims residing within the boundaries of their territories. Non-Muslims living under Ottoman rule were referred to as “Dhimmis”. , The people of Dhimma were respected as humans. Some, including the poor, clergy, sick, elderly and unemployed were entirely exempted from paying the Jizya. They also didn’t have to serve in the army and were given the freedom to follow their own religious teachings with regard to personal status laws, inheritance, etc. The relation between Ottomans and the Church is traced back to the conquest of Constantinople. Upon conquering the city, Fatih Sultan Mehmet issued an order to carry out elections for a new patriarch to be their spiritual and sectarian leader. Ottomans displayed tolerance in their treatment of the people living in the conquered countries and were never known for having imposed their religion on others, despite their being quiet attached to it. Priests and religious leaders did not pay Jizya either. Besides, Jizya did not apply to the ones deemed incapable of fighting, such as children, women, the disabled and the elderly. The establishment of churches and monasteries was carried out by simply obtaining an order (Farman) . Patriarchs and religious leaders enjoyed complete freedom and independence in arranging ecclesiastical orders and Christian religious groups which they headed. Yet, despite all the ease and services the Ottoman State offered Christians, what is it that changed that made them rise against it and consider it as their archenemy? Sons of Europe, enemies of the Ottoman State, realized that the easiest and shortest shortcut to break the state up, accelerate its downfall, and obliterate this irksome enemy was by reviving partisanship, nationalism, and Shu’ubiya. For this, Europeans used Christian Dhimmis living across the four corners of the state.



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    Dear Academicians,

    RESSJOURNAL's issue 10/5 (September 2023) is published. RESSJOURNAL's new issue (100th Anniversary Special Issue) will be published on October 29, 2023. We are waiting for your qualified articles.

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